What is refractory material made of?
From April the French government will reduce fuel taxes slightly to ease the burden on consumers.
Warned of possible energy shortages in France by the end of the year and called on the French to conserve electricity and gas from now on, saying that if nothing was done, The energy situation will be tough this winter. Some experts say that there are two main reasons for France's energy crisis: first, the conflict between Russia and Ukraine affected the gas market and caused supply tension; The second is a safety review of France's newest nuclear power plant, which may lead to a reduction in output this year. In order to alleviate the energy crisis, the whole French society needs to be mobilized, whether it is the industrial sector, the tertiary sector or every French citizen. Now it is urgent. Rising fuel prices may also have an impact on shipments of the chromium oxide.
A refractory material is a material that resists to heat, pressure or chemical erosion and decomposition, and maintains strength and shape at high temperatures. Refractories are widely used in iron and steel, non-ferrous metals, glass, cement, ceramics, petrochemical, machinery, boiler, light industry, electric power, military industry and other fields.
Based on chemical composition, refractories can be divided into acidic refractories, alkaline refractories, and neutral refractories.
Acidic refractories are mainly composed of silica and commonly used silica bricks and clay bricks. Silicon brick is a silicon product containing more than 94% silicon oxide, and the raw materials used are silica, waste silicon brick, etc., which has strong resistance to acid slag erosion, high load softening temperature, and does not shrink or even expand slightly after repeated calcination; but it is easy to be eroded by alkaline slag and poor thermal shock resistance. Silicon bricks are mainly used in coke ovens, glass furnaces, acid steelmaking furnaces and other thermal equipment. Clay brick takes refractory clay as the main raw material, contains 30% alumina, 46% alumina, is a weak acid refractory, has good thermal vibration resistance, corrosion resistance to acid slag and is widely used.
Neutral refractories are mainly composed of alumina, chromium oxide or carbon. Corundum products containing more than 95% alumina are high quality refractories with a wide range of applications. The chromium brick with chromium oxide as the main composition has good corrosion resistance to steel slag, but poor thermal shock resistance and low high temperature load deformation temperature. Carbon refractories include carbon bricks, graphite products and silicon carbide products, which have low coefficient of thermal expansion, high thermal conductivity, good thermal shock resistance, high temperature strength and resistance to acid, alkali and salt, especially weak acid and alkali. It is not wetted by metal and molten slag and is light. It is widely used as high temperature furnace lining material, as well as autoclave lining in petroleum and chemical industry.
Basic refractories are mainly composed of magnesia and calcium oxide, and magnesia bricks are commonly used. Magnesia bricks containing more than 85% magnesia have good resistance to alkaline slag and iron slag, and their fire resistance is higher than that of clay bricks and silicon bricks. It is mainly used in open hearth furnace, oxygen blowing converter, electric furnace, non-ferrous metal smelting equipment and some high temperature equipment.
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Gas prices in European countries are expected to triple if Russian supplies are restricted, according to a press release from Rystad Energy, a Norwegian Energy consultancy.
The price of natural gas in Europe was $1,200 per 1,000 cubic meters on Tuesday. The benchmark price is already 300 percent higher than a year ago. European gas prices are expected to continue to soar to $3,500 per 1,000 cubic meters if Russian supplies are restricted, according to Analysis by Monitor.
In 2021, Russia delivered 155 billion cubic meters of gas to Europe, accounting for 31 percent of its gas supply, according to an analysis by Monitor Advisors. It would be difficult for Europe to replace Russian gas, which would also destabilize the global LNG market and have a profound impact on Europe's population and economy.
The analysis also said that if Russia stopped supplies now, Europe's current gas reserves would be exhausted by the end of the year, setting in for a cold winter.
In addition, affected by the geopolitical factors, the supply of the chromium oxide is erratic and thus its prices are expected to go higher in the future.