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Silicon Nitride structures and properties

Crystal framework of Silicon Nitride
Si3N4 has two type of crystal framework: α& alpha;- Si3N4 is granular crystal and β& beta; -Si3N4 is needle crystal. Both of them are three-dimensional networks composed of typical vertices of [SN4] tetrahedron as well as come from hexagonal system. The difference in between them hinges on the order of [SiN4] tetrahedral layers. The β & beta; stage is formed by the overlap of hexagonal ring layers composed of six nearly entirely in proportion [SN4] tetrahedrons in the c-axis instructions, while the α & alpha; stage is created by 2 layers of substantial improvement as well as various non-hexagonal ring layers. α & alpha; stage can dissolve oxygen in the series of crystal framework, and also the internal stress of α & alpha; phase is larger than that of β & beta; phase, so the cost-free energy is higher than that of β & beta; phase. From the point of view of thermodynamics, the β & beta; stage is more stable at greater temperature. The & alpha; phase has reduced balance as well as is easy to form. At the temperature of regarding 1500 ℃, the α & alpha; phase undertakes a restoration improvement and is changed right into β & beta; stage. This makeover is permanent, as well as the presence of some process problems and also top quality is much more valuable to the makeover from α & alpha; stage to & beta; phase. & alpha;-Si3N4 is developed when the temperature βis less than 1350 ℃, and also & beta;-Si3N4 can be directly prepared at a temperature level

higher than 1500 ℃. Silicon Nitride buildings The molecular formula of silicon nitride is Si3N4, of which Si accounts for 60.06% and dint N accounts for 39.94%. There is a strong covalent bond between Si and also N (of which the ion bond represent only 30%), so the Si3N4 has high solidity (Morse hardness 9), high melting factor and stable framework.
The Si-N in silicon nitride crystal is mainly covalent bond, and the bonding toughness is high, so it has a large elastic modulus (4.7 × & times; 105kg/cm2). The coefficient of thermal growth is reduced, yet the thermal conductivity is huge, so this product is difficult to produce thermal tension, so it has excellent thermal shock resistance as well as great thermal shock resistance. It has sturdiness, high mechanical toughness at high temperature and also tiny deformation at high temperature. (the high temperature contortion of silicon nitride ceramic with 2.5 g/cm3 density is 0.5% at 1200 × & times; 1000h ℃ and also 23 × & times; 7kg/cm2 load). Not deteriorated by lots of metals, due to the development of a silicon dioxide layer, good oxidation resistance and also good electrical insulation.

Silicon nitride has no melting point and sublimates and decays at 1900 ℃ under air pressure. The specific heat is 711.8 J/ kg ℃. The microhardness of α & alpha; phase and also & beta; phase is 10 ~ 16GPa and 24.5 ~ 32.65 Grade point average specifically. Due to the fact that it is a solid covalent bond substance, no fluid phase will certainly be developed listed below its disintegration temperature (concerning 1900 ℃), so silicon nitride products can be sintered with the help of oxide additives. The oxide products that promote sintering are generally Y2O3, Al2O3, etc, as well as the high addition amount can reach 20%. The reaction concept is that the SiO2 oxide movie formed on the surface of silicon nitride fragments reacts with the added oxide to develop liquid phase and also penetrate at the grain limit to make certain high diffusion ability throughout material movement.

Chemical Stability of Silicon Nitride
Si3N4 is a thermodynamically steady substance. Silicon nitride ceramics can be used up to 1400 ℃ in oxidation ambience as well as 1850 ℃ in neutral or minimizing atmosphere. In fact, the oxidation response of Si3N4 occurs above 800C:
Si3N4 +3 O2=3SiO2+N2.

The weight of the example enhanced as well as a dense silica safety layer was gradually based on the surface, which prevented the more oxidation of Si3N4. The weight gain was not noticeable till the temperature was over 1600 ℃. Yet in the damp atmosphere, Si3N4 is extremely easy to oxidize, and the surface area starts to oxidize at 200 ℃, which has to do with two times as quick as that in dry air. The oxidation activation energy of Si3N4 powder in water vapor is undoubtedly less than that in oxygen and also air. The factor is that water vapor can respond with Si3N4 with amorphous SiO2 films:
Si3N4 +6 H2O=3SiO2+NH3.

Silicon nitride is secure to most metal options, devoid of rust and seepage, such as Al, Sn, Pb, Bi, Ga, Zn, Cd, Au, Ag and so on. However, for Cu remedy, it is not deteriorated just in vacuum or inert ambience; Mg can respond weakly with Si3N4; silicon service can wet Si3N4 and erode a little; shift element solution can highly damp Si3N4 and type silicide with Si to quickly decompose silicon nitride and also getaway N2 at the same time. Si3N4 is steady to alloy solutions such as brass, hard aluminum and also nickel silver, and also has good rust resistance to cast iron and tool carbon steel, however it is not resistant to Ni-Cr alloy as well as stainless-steel.

Except for molten NaOH as well as HF, silicon nitride has good chemical rust resistance. Yet most of the liquified alkali as well as salt can connect with Si3N4 to decompose it.

Silicon Nitride utilized in Refractories.
Silicon nitride porcelains are called encouraging high temperature structural materials as a result of their exceptional high temperature properties, such as heat stamina, excellent wear resistance and deterioration resistance. Because of the strong covalent bond and reduced diffusion coefficient at high temperature, the manufacture of Si3N4 ceramics have to rely upon heat, high pressure as well as sintering representative, and the expense is expensive, or else it is tough to generate high quality silicon nitride products. These limitations of production expenses and also equipment are challenging to approve in the metallurgical sector, so the study in the area of refractories starts reasonably late, and the research study is not in-depth. Lots of theories originate from ceramics, however there is not much advancement. In the past, silicon nitride normally existed in the kind of bonding stage in refractories. Through nitriding and also firing of steel Si, accumulations such as corundum or silicon carbide were incorporated with great powder, so as to attain the objective of integrating refractory materials. Ceramic shed plate is silicon carbide aggregate as well as part of great powder. Silicon nitride is developed by nitriding metal Si to develop silicon nitride. Silicon carbide is incorporated to create silicon nitride bonded silicon carbide material, which is used in blast heater body as well as other parts, so that the performance of the product has been significantly boosted. Compared to the clay bound silicon carbide dropped plate, the heat performance of the product is great, which addresses the problem of bulging failing brought on by the oxidation of silicon carbide when the clay adhered silicon carbide lost plate is used.

Silicon nitride Rate
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